Ts, that the factors that relate to poor mental health is

Ts, that the factors that relate to poor mental health is not the presence of suppression, but rather the absence of other functional emotion regulation strategies. These results have important implications for mainstream Western psychotherapeutic interventions, which are usually designed to encourage the open expression of emotion in patients (e.g., open expression of emotions in interpersonal conflicts), although this kind of directness may not be socially acceptable in a collectivist (e.g., Turkish) cultural context. Furthermore, cultural variations regarding norms related to emotional expression have a potential influence on the experience and expression of forms of dysphoria (i.e., an emotional state marked by anxiety, depression, and restlessness), such as depression. It has been shown that individuals from cultural orientations which restrain open emotional expression are often condemned when expressing emotional problems; their problems are not viewed as appropriate BLU-554 web issues to be brought to mental health care. Instead, they are rather viewed as problems which are to be brought to the Tyrphostin AG 490 site attention of a family member, an elder, or someone who is familiar with the network of social ties (97). Thus, it is presumable that cultural norms for emotional expression might have further implications for help-seeking behavior, which is an emerging topic subjected to cultural psychology because of low rates of utilization of mental health care services by minority patients.their health problems) are suggested to present a pivotal cognitive process in the construction of the explanatory model of illness (99) and to a large extent are culturally determined (98,100,101). Theoretical literature suggests that individualistic cultures, attribution style, and causal reasoning are generally directed toward the person rather than the situation or social context, whereas, in collectivistic cultures, social context, and social roles are prevalent in causal reasoning (102,103,104,105). Correspondingly, several psychiatric/psychological and anthropological studies have reported cultural variations in causal attributions about mental distress (106). For instance, among Europeans, the causes of mental illness are more likely to be located within the individual, whereas many non-Western and minority cultures with a collectivistic background cite social relationships as causal (106,107). In support of this argument, some studies conducted with Turkish psychiatric outpatients in Turkey have reported that these patients mainly attribute the cause of their disorder to interpersonal conflicts, conflicts with the current family, conflicts with the family of origin, marital problems, personal characteristics, blame on others, problems at work, fate, and bad luck (108,109). Above all, conflicts with the current family were reported most frequently. In contrast, Townsend (110) demonstrated in a cross-cultural study that German patients regarded mental illness as biologically determined, whereas American patients believed that mental illness is a behavioral phenomenon. Notably, the given literature also suggests that the patients’ beliefs regarding the cause of their illness have an impact on the decision whether or not to seek medical care, their adherence to treatment, and their adjustment to prognosis (111,112). For instance, a comprehensive study has demonstrated that patients who endorse medical beliefs about the causes of their illness are more likely to seek help f.Ts, that the factors that relate to poor mental health is not the presence of suppression, but rather the absence of other functional emotion regulation strategies. These results have important implications for mainstream Western psychotherapeutic interventions, which are usually designed to encourage the open expression of emotion in patients (e.g., open expression of emotions in interpersonal conflicts), although this kind of directness may not be socially acceptable in a collectivist (e.g., Turkish) cultural context. Furthermore, cultural variations regarding norms related to emotional expression have a potential influence on the experience and expression of forms of dysphoria (i.e., an emotional state marked by anxiety, depression, and restlessness), such as depression. It has been shown that individuals from cultural orientations which restrain open emotional expression are often condemned when expressing emotional problems; their problems are not viewed as appropriate issues to be brought to mental health care. Instead, they are rather viewed as problems which are to be brought to the attention of a family member, an elder, or someone who is familiar with the network of social ties (97). Thus, it is presumable that cultural norms for emotional expression might have further implications for help-seeking behavior, which is an emerging topic subjected to cultural psychology because of low rates of utilization of mental health care services by minority patients.their health problems) are suggested to present a pivotal cognitive process in the construction of the explanatory model of illness (99) and to a large extent are culturally determined (98,100,101). Theoretical literature suggests that individualistic cultures, attribution style, and causal reasoning are generally directed toward the person rather than the situation or social context, whereas, in collectivistic cultures, social context, and social roles are prevalent in causal reasoning (102,103,104,105). Correspondingly, several psychiatric/psychological and anthropological studies have reported cultural variations in causal attributions about mental distress (106). For instance, among Europeans, the causes of mental illness are more likely to be located within the individual, whereas many non-Western and minority cultures with a collectivistic background cite social relationships as causal (106,107). In support of this argument, some studies conducted with Turkish psychiatric outpatients in Turkey have reported that these patients mainly attribute the cause of their disorder to interpersonal conflicts, conflicts with the current family, conflicts with the family of origin, marital problems, personal characteristics, blame on others, problems at work, fate, and bad luck (108,109). Above all, conflicts with the current family were reported most frequently. In contrast, Townsend (110) demonstrated in a cross-cultural study that German patients regarded mental illness as biologically determined, whereas American patients believed that mental illness is a behavioral phenomenon. Notably, the given literature also suggests that the patients’ beliefs regarding the cause of their illness have an impact on the decision whether or not to seek medical care, their adherence to treatment, and their adjustment to prognosis (111,112). For instance, a comprehensive study has demonstrated that patients who endorse medical beliefs about the causes of their illness are more likely to seek help f.