Ven rise to a set of important questions (Bornstein, 2001), among them

Ven rise to a set of important questions (Bornstein, 2001), among them how does caregiving vary around the globe and especially in the developing world? This study addresses this question using the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), a nationally representative and internationally comparable household survey of developing countries in different regions of the world (UNICEF, 2006). The MICS provides a unique source of information to examine protective and risk factors for child health, nutrition, education, development, and well-being. Two Domains of Positive Caregiving: Cognitive and SocioRR6 web HS-173 biological activity emotional Caregiving is instantiated in cognitions and practices. Caregiving is also multidimensional, modular, and specific (see Bornstein, 2006). In this investigation, we adopted an etic approach (Jahoda, 1977) to the cross-national study of child caregiving. We focused on constituents of cognitive and socioemotional parenting because they are prominent, active, and enriching caregiving responsibilities that would also be expected to vary globally. Beginning in infancy, children learn about the physical world through cognitive interactions, and children are motivated to connect with others through socioemotional interactions. Many investigators have operationally distinguished cognitive and socioemotional caregiving domains (e.g., Bornstein, 2006). These two broad types of caregiving are relatively independent of one another and developmentally significant because they relate to children’s communicative, mental, emotional, and social competencies (National Research Council, 2000; Walker et al., 2007). For example, mother-child cognitive interactions predict mental and verbal development in children (e.g., Bornstein, 1985; Olson, Bates, Bayles, 1984), and mothers who are more socioemotionally sensitive to their childrenChild Dev. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2013 January 01.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptBornstein and PutnickPagepromote children’s interpersonal competencies (e.g., De Wolff van IJzendoorn, 1997). These two modalities not only lay the foundation for future development, they are universal (in the sense that they are common), even if they vary in form and the degree to which they are shaped by experience and influenced by culture (Greenfield, Suzuki, Rothstein-Fisch, 2006; Morelli Rothbaum, 2007). Cognitive caregiving–Generally, cognitive caregiving consists of the variety of strategies parents employ in stimulating children to engage and understand the environment by describing and demonstrating and providing children with opportunities to learn. Education is a vital generic caregiving function (e.g., Papousek Bornstein, 1992). Few studies have examined international variation in cognitive caregiving practices with young children, especially from developing countries. Experiments and interventions that have (e.g., Behrman, Cheng, Todd, 2004; Kagitcibasi, Sunar, Bekman, 2001; Magnuson Waldfogel, 2005; Magwaza Edwards, 1991; Psacharopoulos Parrinos, 1994) attest to higher cognitive functioning and lasting effects of early cognitive interventions (Victora, Victora, Barros, 1990) with some gains enduring into adulthood (Mehansho, 2006; Walker, Chang, Powell, Grantham-McGregor, 2005). Walker et al. (2007) targeted cognitive caregiving stimulation as one of four key factors in need of urgent intervention in developing countries. The MICS asks about mothers’ speci.Ven rise to a set of important questions (Bornstein, 2001), among them how does caregiving vary around the globe and especially in the developing world? This study addresses this question using the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), a nationally representative and internationally comparable household survey of developing countries in different regions of the world (UNICEF, 2006). The MICS provides a unique source of information to examine protective and risk factors for child health, nutrition, education, development, and well-being. Two Domains of Positive Caregiving: Cognitive and Socioemotional Caregiving is instantiated in cognitions and practices. Caregiving is also multidimensional, modular, and specific (see Bornstein, 2006). In this investigation, we adopted an etic approach (Jahoda, 1977) to the cross-national study of child caregiving. We focused on constituents of cognitive and socioemotional parenting because they are prominent, active, and enriching caregiving responsibilities that would also be expected to vary globally. Beginning in infancy, children learn about the physical world through cognitive interactions, and children are motivated to connect with others through socioemotional interactions. Many investigators have operationally distinguished cognitive and socioemotional caregiving domains (e.g., Bornstein, 2006). These two broad types of caregiving are relatively independent of one another and developmentally significant because they relate to children’s communicative, mental, emotional, and social competencies (National Research Council, 2000; Walker et al., 2007). For example, mother-child cognitive interactions predict mental and verbal development in children (e.g., Bornstein, 1985; Olson, Bates, Bayles, 1984), and mothers who are more socioemotionally sensitive to their childrenChild Dev. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2013 January 01.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptBornstein and PutnickPagepromote children’s interpersonal competencies (e.g., De Wolff van IJzendoorn, 1997). These two modalities not only lay the foundation for future development, they are universal (in the sense that they are common), even if they vary in form and the degree to which they are shaped by experience and influenced by culture (Greenfield, Suzuki, Rothstein-Fisch, 2006; Morelli Rothbaum, 2007). Cognitive caregiving–Generally, cognitive caregiving consists of the variety of strategies parents employ in stimulating children to engage and understand the environment by describing and demonstrating and providing children with opportunities to learn. Education is a vital generic caregiving function (e.g., Papousek Bornstein, 1992). Few studies have examined international variation in cognitive caregiving practices with young children, especially from developing countries. Experiments and interventions that have (e.g., Behrman, Cheng, Todd, 2004; Kagitcibasi, Sunar, Bekman, 2001; Magnuson Waldfogel, 2005; Magwaza Edwards, 1991; Psacharopoulos Parrinos, 1994) attest to higher cognitive functioning and lasting effects of early cognitive interventions (Victora, Victora, Barros, 1990) with some gains enduring into adulthood (Mehansho, 2006; Walker, Chang, Powell, Grantham-McGregor, 2005). Walker et al. (2007) targeted cognitive caregiving stimulation as one of four key factors in need of urgent intervention in developing countries. The MICS asks about mothers’ speci.