.e. iron-porphyrins) were later found to catalyze several reactions distinct from

.e. iron-porphyrins) were later found to catalyze several reactions distinct from oxygen transfers. Breslow and Gelman first order GS-5816 demonstrated that iron-tetraphenyl porphyrin model complexes could catalyze intraand intermolecular nitrene transfers to form benzosultams and substituted cyclohexanes when provided with iminoiodinane nitrene precursors [33]. Following up on this, Dawson and coworkers found that rabbit liver P450 enzymes could catalyze low levels (< 5 total turnovers, TTN) of the same reactions that had been described for the synthetic P450 model [34]. More recently, our group demonstrated several new P450 reactions that had previously been shown only for metalloporphyrins. It has been known since the 1990s that iron porphyrins catalyze the reaction of olefins with diazo carbene precursors to yield cyclopropanes [35]. Metalloporphyrin-catalyzed cyclopropanation is thought to proceed via a metal-carbenoid intermediate, analogous to P450 epoxidations that proceed through compound I. However, it was only recently shown by Coelho et al. [36 that this reaction could be catalyzed at low levels by hemin in water as well as by several heme proteins, including P450BM3, although at lower levels even than free hemin. The selectivities of most of the heme proteins mirrored the trans-selectivity of hemin for the cyclopropanation of styrene with ethyl diazoacetate. P450BM3 showed very low activity, but in contrast to the other heme proteins produced the cyclopropane product with low but measurable enantioselectivity. Mutations in P450BM3, including at highly conserved residues such T268, dramatically improved the productivity as well as the diastereo- and enantioselectivity of this reaction (Figure 3A). Although in natural P450s, this conserved active site threonine acts as a proton shuttle, for non-natural chemistry, mutation of T268 to less bulky alanine presumably relieves steric impediments to reactivity, as evidenced by strong alterations in the stereoselectivity of cyclopropanation; future studies may shed light on the effect of this mutation by assaying alternative substitutions at this position. Enzyme engineering could even overcome the natural selectivity of the prosthetic group to achieve >90 cis selectivity. And, while free hemin gives a racemic mixture of products, the P450BM3 cyclopropanation catalysts exhibited enantioselectivites of up to 97 . In a second publication, Coelho and coworkers demonstrated that mutation of the axial coordinating cysteine, R1503MedChemExpress R1503 universally conserved among P450s, to serine was highly activating, particularly in vivo (vide infra) [37 ]. The strong effect of axial ligand substitution was attributed in part to the significant increase in reduction potential (>100 mV increase) for the serine-ligated enzyme, facilitating reduction to the active ferrous state. Axial thiolate ligation, absolutely essential for monooxygenation, is unnecessary for this non-natural reaction. Whereas thiolate ligation is important for O-O bond scission, no such strong electron donation is required to decompose the less-stable diazo substrates employed by Coelho et al. Another metalloporphyrin reaction shown to be catalyzed by P450s is C-H amination from azides as nitrene sources (Figure 3B) [38 . The iminoiodinane precursors that Dawson and coworkers had used to obtain low levels of C-H amination with P450s [34] are problematic due to their insolubility in protein-compatible solvents. Thus we tested the more atomefficient and conven..e. iron-porphyrins) were later found to catalyze several reactions distinct from oxygen transfers. Breslow and Gelman first demonstrated that iron-tetraphenyl porphyrin model complexes could catalyze intraand intermolecular nitrene transfers to form benzosultams and substituted cyclohexanes when provided with iminoiodinane nitrene precursors [33]. Following up on this, Dawson and coworkers found that rabbit liver P450 enzymes could catalyze low levels (< 5 total turnovers, TTN) of the same reactions that had been described for the synthetic P450 model [34]. More recently, our group demonstrated several new P450 reactions that had previously been shown only for metalloporphyrins. It has been known since the 1990s that iron porphyrins catalyze the reaction of olefins with diazo carbene precursors to yield cyclopropanes [35]. Metalloporphyrin-catalyzed cyclopropanation is thought to proceed via a metal-carbenoid intermediate, analogous to P450 epoxidations that proceed through compound I. However, it was only recently shown by Coelho et al. [36 that this reaction could be catalyzed at low levels by hemin in water as well as by several heme proteins, including P450BM3, although at lower levels even than free hemin. The selectivities of most of the heme proteins mirrored the trans-selectivity of hemin for the cyclopropanation of styrene with ethyl diazoacetate. P450BM3 showed very low activity, but in contrast to the other heme proteins produced the cyclopropane product with low but measurable enantioselectivity. Mutations in P450BM3, including at highly conserved residues such T268, dramatically improved the productivity as well as the diastereo- and enantioselectivity of this reaction (Figure 3A). Although in natural P450s, this conserved active site threonine acts as a proton shuttle, for non-natural chemistry, mutation of T268 to less bulky alanine presumably relieves steric impediments to reactivity, as evidenced by strong alterations in the stereoselectivity of cyclopropanation; future studies may shed light on the effect of this mutation by assaying alternative substitutions at this position. Enzyme engineering could even overcome the natural selectivity of the prosthetic group to achieve >90 cis selectivity. And, while free hemin gives a racemic mixture of products, the P450BM3 cyclopropanation catalysts exhibited enantioselectivites of up to 97 . In a second publication, Coelho and coworkers demonstrated that mutation of the axial coordinating cysteine, universally conserved among P450s, to serine was highly activating, particularly in vivo (vide infra) [37 ]. The strong effect of axial ligand substitution was attributed in part to the significant increase in reduction potential (>100 mV increase) for the serine-ligated enzyme, facilitating reduction to the active ferrous state. Axial thiolate ligation, absolutely essential for monooxygenation, is unnecessary for this non-natural reaction. Whereas thiolate ligation is important for O-O bond scission, no such strong electron donation is required to decompose the less-stable diazo substrates employed by Coelho et al. Another metalloporphyrin reaction shown to be catalyzed by P450s is C-H amination from azides as nitrene sources (Figure 3B) [38 . The iminoiodinane precursors that Dawson and coworkers had used to obtain low levels of C-H amination with P450s [34] are problematic due to their insolubility in protein-compatible solvents. Thus we tested the more atomefficient and conven.