Ies [FIGS]; Maxwell, 1992). Testing Session Procedures Prior to testing, participants abstained for >3 hr from caffeine and/or smoking/nicotine, also as from alcohol/drugs (aside from contraceptives and medication necessary for a stabilized physical situation) starting at midnight. Upon arrival towards the laboratory, subjective mood evaluations had been carried out. Concurrently, electrodes were applied, following which the experiment commenced. This study was authorized by the Royal Ottawa Overall health Care Group and the University of Ottawa Social Sciences and Humanities Analysis Ethics Boards and informed consent was obtained from all participants. Participants wereJ Affect Disord. Author manuscript; offered in PMC 2013 February 1.Jaworska et al.Pagecompensated 30.00 CDN/session (patients participated in several sessions as a part of a larger study).NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptSubjective Mood HI-TOPK-032 price Questionnaires Mood was assessed using the Profile of Mood States (POMS; McNair et al., 1992) on which participants rated their subjective state utilizing a Likert scale on 65 mood adjectives, from which values had been aggregated to type seven mood dimensions (tension-anxiety, depressiondejection, anger-hostility, vigor-activity, fatigue-inertia, confusion-bewilderment and total mood disturbance). Emotional Faces Recognition Task The faces recognition activity was adapted from Krolak-Salmon et al. (2001). Thirty-six photographic faces displaying among four expressions (sadness [sad], joy, surprise [sur], neutral) have been presented individually on a screen in front from the seated participant ( 1 m) inside a dim, electrically-shielded and sound-attenuated space. Every single emotion was expressed at 3 intensities (20 , 50 , 100 ) by a single actor. Two males and two females displayed one emotion at all intensities (i.e., 16 actors). Expressions at 20 intensity have been considered “neutral” as they may be not reliably distinguished (Orgeta Phillips, 2008) and 0 expressions are extra likely to be confused with negative than with other facial expressions (Palermo Coltheart, 2004). Photographs have been digitized and converted to grey-scale photos, matched for luminance and contrast, with all the neck and hair cropped out (Figure 1). Each and every expression (neutral, sad50, sad100, joy50, joy100, sur50, sur100) was pseudorandomly presented 80 instances (no identical faces presented back-to-back) for 400 ms (ISI: 1500 ms; Presentation Software program, Neurobehavioral Systems, Albany, CA, USA). Participants pressed a button to surprised faces (sur50, sur100) to ensure that they paid attention to expressions. Hits ( right responses to sur50 sur100), false alarms (FA; responses to non-surprised faces) and reaction times (RT) had been recorded. Facial Expression Rating Questionnaire Immediately after the activity, participants rated ten faces (one male and a single female expressing each of joy50, joy100, sad50, sad100 and neutral) presented through the process. Faces had been rated applying a Likert scale from 0 (not at all) to ten (quite a great deal) on two valence questions: how 1) “sad” and two) “happy” does the face appear. Participants rated the faces depending on their gut reaction, taking 2? min to price all faces. Two questionnaire versions, containing various faces but bearing the identical expressions, have been administered. No differences existed amongst the versions, therefore, ratings had been averaged across the questionnaires. Electrophysiological Recordings PubMed ID:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21228935/ Information Reduction EEG activity was recorded (500 Hz) working with a cap embedded.