Difference amongst males and females. Participants described their parent’s marital status as 62 married, 7 single, 19 divorced, and 12 separated. When living at dwelling, 78 of participants reported living with their mothers, 68 living with fathers, 13 living with grandparent(s), and 11 living with another relative. A total of 72 self-identified as members of the Yup’ik Alaska Native cultural linguistic group, followed by Inupiat (21 ), Athabaskan (11 ), Aleut/Alutiq (6 ), and Tlingit/Haida (four ). Some folks identified with two or more ethnic categories. Measures Item pool Adult Self-Mastery: Pearlin et al. (1981) originally developed the Mastery scale as an adult measure of private sense of control in overcoming life troubles. The scale consists of seven items rated on a four-point Likert-type scale, assessing the extent to which men and women perceive themselves as obtaining control over the circumstances that influence their lives. Representative things include things like “I can do just about something I definitely set my thoughts to,” and “What occurs to me within the future mostly is dependent upon me.” Internal consistency reported by Hobfoll, Jackson, et al. (2002) was = .72. Adult MedChemExpress PZM21 Communal Mastery: The Communal Mastery scale (Jackson, McKenzie, Hobfoll, 2000) is actually a 10-item measure itself initially adapted in the Mastery Scale (Pearlin et al., 1981) plus the Self-Efficacy Scale (Schwarzer, 1993) to measure coping approaches from a more collectivist orientation. Representative things consist of “Working collectively with household and close friends I can solve lots of challenges I’ve,” and “What happens to me inside the future will depend on my capacity to function properly with other people,” to which folks respond on a fourpoint Likert scale. Internal consistency for this scale was = .74 (Hobfoll, Jackson, et al., 2002). We adapted these mastery measures for youth. Validity measures Youth Neighborhood Assistance: The Youth Neighborhood Assistance scale can be a three-item subscale adapted from the People’s Awakening Yup’ik Protective Things scale for adults (Allen et al., 2006). The Youth Neighborhood Help scale taps youth perceptions regarding the presence and extent of help as a protective aspects readily available to young individuals from the community generally, outdoors of household and friendship. Representative items contain “People PubMed ID:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2105157 assistance me” and “People are readily available to me for tips.”NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptPsychol Assess. Author manuscript; accessible in PMC 2013 June 01.Fok et al.PageReligious Involvement: Youth’s degree of involvement with formal religion was assessed by way of two items. On a single item the youth rated the significance of church in their life as not at all, somewhat, or truly vital, and on a second item, youth rated church attendance through one of five radio buttons, as less than after a year, 1? instances a year, 1? instances a month, 3? instances a month, or at the least after a week. Alaska Native Cultural Identification: The Alaska Native Cultural Identification scale is an eight-item scale adapted in the item set in the Orthogonal Cultural Identification scale (Oetting Beauvais, 1990?991), a system of assessment of bicultural identities amongst ethnic minority youth. The Alaska Native Cultural Identification scale uses two item stems, worded applying descriptors our concentrate group function located locally understandable: “How much you live by or adhere to the [Native/White American] way of life?” and “How a great deal do you speak [Native language/English]?” Because.