Stency (0.76; [31]). Moderate correlation has been confirmed with general measures of anxiety, self-perceptions of

Stency (0.76; [31]). Moderate correlation has been confirmed with general measures of anxiety, self-perceptions of social confidence, teacher ratings of anxiety withdrawal, and peer ratings of popularity [32]. The internal consistency of the SASC-R in the current sample was excellent (child: = .96, mother: = .98). Mother. The Symptom Checklist Short (SCL-K-9, [33] a short version of the SCL-90-R [34], includes 9 items to economically screen for the most common psychopathological symptoms in adults (e.g. anxiety, depression etc.). Symptoms experienced in the past week (e.g., “How often did you feel like you were worrying too much?”) are assessed on a 5-point Likertlike scale (“not at all” to “very often”). Internal consistency for the questionnaire is excellent (Cronbach’s = .87). Convergent validity has been established by correlation with similar questionnaires [33]. Internal consistency for the SCL-K-9 in the current sample was PubMed ID: good (Cronbach’s = .79). The Mini-Social Phobia Inventory (Mini-SPIN, [35]) serves as screening instrument for generalized social anxiety, using three items (e.g., “Being embarrassed or looking stupid are among my worst fears”) which are answered on a 6-point scale (0 “not at all” to 5 “extremely”). A cut-off of 6 is suggested to separate moderate from low symptoms of social anxiety [35]. Sensitivity (94.6 ) and specificity (90.4 ) at this cut-off are good [35]. Internal consistency in the current sample was excellent (Cronbach’s = .91). Child and Mother. The Fragebogen zur Erhebung der Emotionsregulation bei Kindern und Jugendlichen (FEEL-KJ; Questionnaire on Emotion Regulation in Children and Youth, [36])is a German trait questionnaire covering a broad range of ER strategies over 30 items rated on a 5-point scale concerning frequency of strategy application (1 “almost never” to 5 “almost always”). The same items are used to assess coping with anxiety, anger and sadness. In the current study, only the questionnaire covering anxiety was used. From the items, 15 strategies are extracted which can be classified as adaptive emotion regulation strategies (ER-S; e.g., “If I am anxious, I try to remember happy times”; problem-oriented action, cheering up, distraction, acceptance, cognitive problem solving, forgetting, reappraisal) and maladaptive ER-S (e.g., “If I am anxious, I start a fight with someone else”; withdrawal, self-degradation, resigning, perseveration, aggression). Three further strategies (suppression, social support, emotion expression) did not load on either factor in the original study [36]. While suppression is often interpreted as maladaptive (e.g. [37]), it did not load on the same factor as other maladaptive strategies in the validation study [36]. Internal consistencies for the strategies were satisfactory ( = .69) to excellent ( = .91). Re-test reliability was also confirmed to be good (after six weeks: .62 rtt .81; [36]). Internal consistency in the current sample was excellent for child adaptive ER-S ( = .85) and maladaptive ER-S ( = .81). To achieve comparability of ER-S between mother and child, we constructed a maternal trait version of the FEEL-KJ. This consisted of the same items as the FEEL-KJ but used an AZD5153 (6-Hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid) adapted introduction. Comparisons with an established questionnaire for assessment of ER-S in adults (Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, ERQ; [38]) showed significant correlations between adaptive ER-S and reappraisal (r = .488, p < .001) as well as between maladaptive ER-S and su.

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