Istance gene we detected (blaVIM-1) is uncommon in France, exactly where it caused only 5 in the reported infections as a consequence of carbapenem-resistant enterobacteria, the OXA-48- and OXA-48-like genes becoming the most frequent within the nation (74 ) (INVS 2014). blaVIM-1 is an integron-borne metallo–lactamase gene which was very first reported in Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Italy in 1996 (Lauretti et al., 1999). It encodes to get a class B carbapenemase which also hydrolyzes all -lactams except monobactams, and evades all -lactamase inhibitors. VIM-1-bearing bacteria happen to be reported from clinical samples in Greece although they may be starting to spread in southwestern Europe, notably in Spain and Italy, though France seems, for now, to become much less impacted (Canton et al., 2012; Mathlouthi et al., 2016). The phylogenetic analyses performed utilizing phylotyping and 3 varieties of genetic markers (SNP, MLST and VNTR) clearly showed that yellow-legged gulls, slender-billed gulls, and humans share the exact same pool of E. coli strains. Our benefits confirm that E. coli exchanges are frequent involving gulls and humans, as was previously demonstrated inside the region (Bonnedahl et al., 2009). The occurrence of such exchanges highlights the prospective danger of resistance spreading from gulls to humans (Stedt et al., 2014). VIM-1-containing E. coli are closely related to carbapenemsusceptible strains isolated from the two gull species and humans. Nonetheless, their group may be distinguished from the susceptible group by way of two genetic traits. First, PCR phylotyping showed that the 92 strains we studied integrated bacteria belonging to 8 phylogroups. No phylogroup was significantly additional present than other individuals in susceptible strains. By contrast, phylogroup A, to which some susceptible strains also belong, represented 81.8 in the VIM-1-bearing E. coli. The association amongst some phylogroups and Oxamflatin site antimicrobial resistance patterns is for now poorly understood. Nonetheless, many research have currently highlighted that phylogroup A E. coli are over-represented inside resistant strains isolated in France (Smati et al., 2013), such as chromosomal AmpC -lactamase overproducers carried by humans (Corvec et al., 2007) as well as ESBL E. coli detected in cattle (Valat et al., 2012) and ampicillin-resistant isolates from pigs (Bibbal, Dupouy, Pr e, Toutain, Bousquet-M ou, 2009). Additional research are still needed to establish if E. coli belonging to phylogroup A are more most likely to obtain antimicrobial resistances and why. Carbapenem-resistant strains tended to become significantly less diverse than susceptible ones as outlined by VNTR and SNP analysis. This reduced diversity is constant with all the larger choice pressure, potentially linked with antimicrobial molecule presence, resulting in robust bottlenecks that are expected to possess contributed for the emergence of resistant strains. This suggests that the resistance was lately acquired by the bacteria we isolated or that a selection pressure favored the expansion of a preexistent clone. We report here the second isolation worldwide of carbapenemresistant enterobacteria from wild birds and also the initial detection in4| DISCUSSIONWe highlighted the presence of VIM-1 carbapenem-resistant E. coli strains in yellow-legged gulls in southern France. Our results confirm that gulls represent a bird group that regularly carries antimicrobialresistant bacteria, as was previously shown in several research PubMed ID:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21099360 (e.g., C ek, Dolejsk? Karp kov? Ddicov? Liter , 2007; Hasan, Melhus, Sa.