Ting thoughts” (29.8 ), “lost a job on purpose” (24.4 ), and “abused alcohol” (13.60 ). Seventy-one MedChemExpress HI-TOPK-032 individuals (2.8 ) acknowledged “suicide attempts”. Gender. No significant relationships between SHI and BMI groups were observed for men (2 = 7.18, df = 5, p = 0.208) and women (2 = 8.13, df = 5, p = 0.149) separately. Continuous SHI total scores were not related to BMI scores according to bivariate correlations (r = 0.004, p = 0.832). Nonetheless, Fig 2 suggests higher SHI scores in obese participants (Kruskal-Wallis test: 2 = 15.28, df = 5, p = 0.009). Pairwise comparisons showed that the obesity grade 2 group exhibited higher SHI scores than all groups with a lower BMI (all p.s < 0.046). The overweight group had lower SHI scores than the obesity grade 3 group (p = 0.046). No differences were found between the other groups. In terms of gender differences, subsequent analyses did not show a significant relationship between BMI groups and SHI scores in the male (2 = 9.86, df = 5, p = 0.079) but in the female sample (2 = 11.79, df PubMed ID:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21184822 = 5, p = 0.038) (see Fig 2). Pairwise group comparisons showed that women from the normal and the overweight group exhibited significantly less self-harm than women with obesity grade 2 or 3 (all p.s < 0.032). The remaining groups did not significantly differ from each other.DiscussionBelow we discuss our findings with regard to the factor structure and reliability of the German SHI, the occurrence of non-suicidal and suicidal self-harm in the present German population sample, and the sociodemographic and psychopathological correlates of self-harm.Factor structure and reliability of the German SHIOverall, the present findings support our hypothesis pertaining to the one-factorial structure of the German SHI. Testing the fit of the single-factor model proposed by Sansone et al.  by conducting a CFA, the model provided a reasonably acceptable, although not excellent, fit toPLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0157928 June 30,11 /Self-Harm in the German Populationthe data. Internal consistency coefficients (reliability) of the German version of the SHI for the total sample, males and females were sufficient and in line with previous data [30, 32, 33, 35]. With regard to the low loadings of item 17 ("Lost a job on purpose"), we may assume that this item refers to a form of self-harming behavior which is less related to the direct and/or indirect harm to the body compared to the other SHI items (e.g. like self-cutting, sexual abusive relationships).Prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of self-harmThis was the first study that investigated frequencies of self-harming behaviors in the general German population using the SHI. Almost half of the sample acknowledged at least one selfharming behavior, most frequently cognitive ("torturing with self-defeating thoughts"), interpersonal ("losing a job on purpose"), and other forms of indirect ("abused alcohol") self-harm. This is partially in line with the findings of Latimer et al. . In their study, "torturing with self-defeating thoughts" and "abused alcohol" were the most frequently endorsed items. "Lost a job on purpose" was less often acknowledged, which can be explained by the fact that Latimer et al. investigated university students who might not have had many chances to lose a job. Past research indicated higher prevalence rates of NSSI behaviors among women compared to men [21, 47]. Though, some researchers reported equal prevalence rates among men and wo.