Ed in the present sample using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Second, it was investigated whether this structure generalizes to both Monomethyl auristatin F methyl ester chemical information gender subsamples. As the SHI responses are dichotomous (Yes or No), a weighted least squares means and variances adjusted estimation method (WLSMV option, MPLUS 7.3) was used for estimating all model parameters. Model fit was assessed by multiple criteria: comparative fit index (CFI) for fit relative to a null model, complemented with the root mean squared error of approximation (RMSEA) for overall fit. The criteria for good model fit were defined according to Hu and Bentler  as CFI > 0.95 (0.90 is acceptable), and RMSEA > 0.06 (0.09 is acceptable). The final solution for both gender subsamples PubMed ID:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21185503 was compared to the CFA solution of the total sample using factor congruence coefficients. Previous research demonstrated a strong relationship between the SHI and measures of impulsivity, depression, and anxiety. Therefore, construct validity was determined calculating correlations between the SHI and the BIS-15 (impulsivity) and the PHQ-4 (depression/anxiety). Women were more often living without a partner than men. Men had more often a BMI of 25 kg/m2 than women (61.1 vs. 50.3 , respectively, 2 = 29.10, p < 0.001).Factor Structure, reliability, and construct validity of the German SHIThe results of the CFA are listed in Table 2. According to the cut-off values for the fit indices, the one-factor model showed a reasonable fit in the total sample. Subsequently, the sample was split into a male (n = 1,115) and a female subgroup (n = 1,392). In both subsamples, a one-factor model was fitted by means of CFA. For the male sample, items 21 and 22 had to be removed because they were endorsed by less than 0.04 of the sample, resulting in insufficient variation in the responses to allow for a reliable estimation of the parameters associated with those items. For the female sample, all items could be included as in the total sample. The results of the CFA indicated an acceptable fit for the one-factor model for both, the male and the female sample separately (Table 2). Factor congruence coefficients for the one-factor solution for females and for males versus the total sample were both equal to 0.99, meaning that the pattern of factor loadings was very similar in the total sample and both gender groups. Table 3 displays the factor loadings for the one-factor solution in the total sample as well as in the male and female participants. Factor loadings of item 17 were substantially lower than loadings of any other item, though the endorsement was high. The total SHI showed acceptable internal consistency (reliability) with Cronbach's coefficients of 0.78 for the total sample, 0.75 for men (same result if items 21 and 22 were excluded), and 0.80 for women. Table 4 displays the results of the Spearman correlations between the SHI and the BIS-15, and the PHQ-4 in the total sample, and separately for men and women. As expected, higher scores on the SHI were moderately related to more impulsiveness (BIS-15) and more symptoms of anxiety and depression (PHQ-4).Prevalence and correlates of self-harming behaviorsTable 5 summarizes the frequencies of self-harming behaviors as measured with the SHI in the total sample and separately for men and women. Overall, 1,228 participants (49.0 of the total sample) endorsed at least one SHI item. The behaviors with the highest prevalence rates were "torturing oneself with self-defea.