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203). Additional, cannabis use is around the rise (SAMHSA, 203). It is therefore
203). Further, cannabis use is around the rise (SAMHSA, 203). It really is as a result PubMed ID: crucial to establish no matter if putative proximal `highrisk’ cannabis vulnerability things are in reality related to use. Tensionreductionbased models of substance use (e.g Conger, 956) propose that substances could possibly be applied in an try to relieve unpleasant physical andor emotional states like withdrawal, craving, and damaging influence. Consistent with these models (e.g Khantzian, 997), substance use is maintained in the event the preferred effect is accomplished (i.e substance produces alleviation of negative state). The incorporation of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) into prospective designs is one solution to test the utility of tensionreductionbased models. Added benefits involve: collection of information in realworld environments; minimization of retrospective recall bias; and aggregation of observations more than many assessments facilitating withinsubject assessments across time and context, permitting the examination of both predictors and consequences of use (Shiffman et al 2008). There is some evidence that withdrawal, craving, and negative have an effect on are `highrisk’ cannabis use components. Withdrawal is associated with cannabis relapse (Cornelius et al 2008) and was crosssectionally related to cannabis use following a selfquit (i.e no treatment) attempt inside a pilot EMA study of 30 cannabis users (Buckner et al 203). Craving does not only happen buy MRT68921 (hydrochloride) within the context of withdrawal (see American Psychiatric Association [APA], 203). As a result, it’s vital to assess no matter if craving specifically is associated with use and extant information suggest it might be. THC administration decreases craving (Haney et al 2008) and in a pilot study of 49 Florida State University (FSU) undergraduates, craving was larger before cannabis use and reduce following use (Buckner et al 202a). Similarly, cannabis customers report utilizing cannabis to cope with stress and anxiety (Hathaway, 2003; Ogborne et al 2000). Further, while both optimistic and damaging impact have been higher throughout cannabis use than nonuse episodes in our pilot study of selfquitters, only damaging impact was uniquely associated with use (Buckner et al 203).Drug Alcohol Depend. Author manuscript; available in PMC 206 February 0.Buckner et al.PageThere stay many gaps in our understanding of putative highrisk cannabis use maintenance variables. 1st, no identified research assessed momentary motives for cannabis use among users not undergoing a quit attempt. Therefore, though coping, enhancement, and expansion motives have a tendency to be most strongly related to cannabis use when assessed by means of retrospective assessments (e.g Buckner et al 2007; Simons et al 2000), it is unknown whether these motives proximally predict use. Second, even though tensionreductionbased models posit that cannabis use must lead to decreases in unpleasant states, we know of no EMA studies testing irrespective of whether cannabis use results in decreases in withdrawal andor adverse have an effect on. Third, the majority of study on withdrawal has concerned people undergoing quit attempts, limiting facts concerning the function of withdrawal amongst nontreatment seekers. Fourth, despite the fact that the majority of cannabis use occurs when other individuals are also using (Buckner et al 202a, 203), it is unknown no matter whether higher use in social conditions is for social causes andor as a consequence of increases in cannabis withdrawal or craving in response to cannabisrelated cues (e.g peers’ paraphernalia). Fifth, the vast majority of function has relied on information from predominantly Caucasian.

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