On rank sum test in 10 out of 219 KEGG pathways, the metabolites and proteins were substantially enriched (p 0.05) resulting from functional connectivity (Table 2). These pathways comprised in total 18 metabolites and four proteins and may be roughly distinguished into energy-relevant processes like “Glycolysisgluconeogenesis” and “Pyruvate metabolism” and into pathways linked with distinctive metabolic diseases like “Type II diabetes mellitus” PubMed ID:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21367958 and “NAFLD” (Non-alcoholic fatty liver illness). “Sphingolipid metabolism” (p = 0.014), that comprised 4 metabolites, was the most considerably enriched composition of metabolic elements. Most metabolites and proteins have been assigned to a single pathway. Of particular value were across pathway elements that may well be indicators of essential regulators having a powerful impact on drip loss. As an instance, the metabolites PP58 web glucose and pyruvic acid are participants in six and five different pathways, respectively. The strongest overlapping induced by the metabolites glucose and pyruvic acid is usually observed between glycolysis, methane and pyruvate metabolism showing that these pathways are closely linked. In contrast, the most significant pathway sphingolipid metabolismInt. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17,four ofhas only one particular link towards the methane metabolism resulting from overlapping metabolite serine, whereas the remaining involved metabolites are exclusively members of sphingolipid metabolism.Table 2. Considerable KEGG pathways for drip loss.Pathway Sphingolipid metabolism Kind II diabetes mellitus Methane metabolism Renal cell carcinoma Insulin secretion Meiosis yeast NAFLD GlycolysisGluconeogenesis KEGG-ID 00600 04930 00680 05211 04911 04113 04932 00010 p-Value 0.014 0.018 0.020 0.027 0.043 0.045 0.045 0.045 Involved Metabolites and Proteins ceramide, glucosylceramide, phosphoethanolamine, serine pyruvic acid, glucose, PKM glycine, pyruvic acid, hydroxypyruvic acid, F6P, malic acid, serine, phosphoenol pyruvate, glycerone-p, glycerone, DG3P fumaric acid, malic acid pyruvic acid, glucose glucose glucose pyruvic acid, lactic acid, glucose, phosphoenol pyruvate, glycerone-p, DG3P, FBPase, TPI1, PKM, PGAM2 fumaric acid, pyruvic acid, succinic acid, lactic acid, malic acid, phosphoenol pyruvate, methylglyoxal, PKM glucose, myo-inositolPyruvate metabolism Steptomycin biosynthesis006200.053 0.The enrichment evaluation was performed based on 129 metabolites and 35 proteins. Overrepresentation of metabolic pathways defined by the KEGG database concerning to drip loss was tested using Wilcoxon’s rank sum test; The pathway was considered important if p 0.05; Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG)-ID = KEGG pathway ID; NAFLD = Non-alcoholic Fatty liver disease; glycerone-p = dihydroxyacetone phosphate; PGAM2 = phosphoglycerate mutase 2 (muscle); PKM = pyruvate kinase (muscle); FBPase = fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase two; TPI1 = triosephosphate isomerase 1; DG3P = D-glycerate-3-phosphate; F6P = fructose-6-phosphate; bold: proteins.Concerning the target trait drip loss, 5 metabolic elements had been drastically (p 0.05) correlated (Table 1). Metabolites pyruvic acid, methylglyoxal and glucosylceramide were significantly optimistic correlated even though the proteins pyruvate kinase (muscle) (PKM) and triose phosphate isomerase 1 (TPI1) have been negative correlated with drip loss. Having said that, the correlation coefficient was not above a value of 0.22 in any case (Table 1). two.2. Whole-Genome Association Analysis for Drip Loss and Metabolites and Pr.