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Fitness the cpu time in secondsEnergies 2021, 14,13 ofenergiesArticleEconomic Analysis of Replacing HPS Lamp with LED Lamp and Expense Estimation to Set up PV/Battery Method for R428 TAM Receptor Street Lighting in OmanRona George Allwyn , Rashid Al Abri , Arif Malik and Amer Al-HinaiElectrical and Pc Engineering Department, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 33, Muscat 123, Oman; [email protected] (R.G.A.); [email protected] (A.M.); [email protected] (A.A.-H.) GYY4137 Protocol Correspondence: [email protected]: Within this paper, two aspects related to streetlight systems are regarded as. Within the initially portion, the economic analysis of replacing current HPS lamps with light-emitting diode (LED) and discrete LED lamps for street lighting is performed using actual data from Oman. The street lighting program inside Sultan Qaboos University is deemed for the case study. The discounted payback period, which is calculated to study the practicability of implementing the technique, is located to become 1.01 years, making the program financially attractive. Moreover, the estimated reduction of a carbon footprint shows that tonnes of CO2 emissions are reduced, which tends to make it environmentally eye-catching. The second part of your paper considers optimal sizing of PV/battery technique for any new streetlight method with LED lamps. The life cycle expense analysis was performed as well as the related expense of energy generated per kWh is estimated as 0.097 /kWh which proves the economic viability of your system to be implemented in Oman besides minimizing the CO2 emissions to zero.Citation: George Allwyn, R.; Al Abri, R.; Malik, A.; Al-Hinai, A. Economic Evaluation of Replacing HPS Lamp with LED Lamp and Expense Estimation to Set up PV/Battery Method for Street Lighting in Oman. Energies 2021, 14, 7697. ten.3390/en14227697 Academic Editor: Abu-Siada Ahmed Received: 28 September 2021 Accepted: 28 October 2021 Published: 17 NovemberKeywords: street lighting; HPS; LED; optimal sizing; discounted payback; CO2 emissions; life cycle cost; PV/battery1. Introduction The Greenhouse gases made from fossil fuel harged energy generation lead to global warming and harm the environment. In the context of lighting, these greenhouse gases is usually lowered by decreasing electric energy consumption using energy-saving lamps. Zero greenhouse gas emission is attainable via the use of renewable power sources for energy generation. Globally, 19 of the total electricity generated is utilised for lighting purposes, which leads to the emission of 1900 Mt of CO2 per year, equivalent to emissions ejected from 70 with the world’s light passenger vehicles [1]. Street lights, which boost safety and comfort for road customers, are among the main sources of electrical energy consumption and account for three.19 with the electricity generated globally [2]. In the UK, streetlights consume about 40 of a city’s total electricity cost [3], causing large amounts of CO2 emissions. The highest level of power consumption per luminaire is for outdoor lighting [4]. The lamps utilised for street lighting are classified broadly into three categories: incandescent, discharge, and solid-state lamps (SSL). Presently, by far the most generally utilized lamp among these is the high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamp [5]. The key reasons for the reputation in the HPS lamp compared using the discharge and incandescent lamps are its high lumen/watt, smaller sized size, and reduce cost. Lately, growing fuel rates and environmental concerns have stressed the must replace existing lamps with additional energy-ef.

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