Higher voltage. The applied voltage varied in between 102 kV. In this way, a plasma was generated involving the electrodes at atmospheric pressure. The gas entered by way of one pipe and exited by a separate one. The flow price of CO2 gas (purity 99.five ) was low and constant ( 0.15 SLM) to acquire enhanced control on the applied field. Consequently, the derived axial velocity may be neglected compared to other velocities, i.e., drift and diffusion velocities (Vdiff Vdrif Vaxi).Figure 2. Photographic image and the the AC-PPP reactor: (1) high voltage dielectric, (two) Pyrex tube, Figure 2. Photographic image and the 3D scheme of3D scheme on the AC-PPP reactor: (1) high voltage dielectric, (three) copper (two) Pyrex disk, (four) copper pipe. tube, (three) copper disk, (4) copper pipe.The application of an electric potential among the two electrodes led towards the formation of an axial electric field. Subsequent electron acceleration led for the ionization of background carbon dioxide. During the ionization course of action, free of charge radicals, ions, and neutral atoms have been produced inside the AC-PPP reactor. The operating scenario with the ACPPP reactor for any flow price of 0.15 SLM and an applied voltage fixed of 22 kV is shown within the photographic images in Figure 2. The consumed power within the discharge was measured with a existing probeAppl. Sci. 2021, 11,4 ofA robust electric field was created involving the copper electrodes when applying the AC high voltage. The applied voltage varied in between 102 kV. In this way, a plasma was generated between the electrodes at atmospheric stress. The gas entered via one particular pipe and exited by a separate 1. The flow rate of CO2 gas (purity 99.5 ) was low and continuous ( 0.15 SLM) to acquire improved manage with the applied field. As a result, the derived axial velocity might be neglected compared to other velocities, i.e., drift and diffusion velocities (Vdiff Vdrif Vaxi ). The application of an electric prospective in between the two electrodes led for the formation of an axial electric field. Subsequent electron acceleration led to the ionization of background carbon dioxide. Throughout the ionization course of action, totally free radicals, ions, and neutral atoms were created inside the AC-PPP reactor. The operating circumstance in the AC-PPP reactor for a flow rate of 0.15 SLM and an applied voltage fixed of 22 kV is shown within the photographic pictures in Figure two. The consumed power inside the discharge was measured using a existing probe (Tektronix. Beaverton, OR, USA, TCP202) and a high voltage probe (Tektronix, P6015A) which had been connected to an oscilloscope (HM1508). An HR4000 Ocean Optic spectrometer was made use of to detect the spectra and execute optical Sutezolid Biological Activity emission spectroscopy (OES). This spectrometer is a compact and flexible device with no moving parts and also a linear CCD-array of 3648 pixels. It stores a full spectrum every single millisecond with a wavelength range of 200100 nm. The optical capabilities of this spectrometer contain an input and output focal distance 101.six mm, spatial groove density grating 2400 line/mm, slit width five , and optical resolution of width 0.025 nm. A confocal quartz lens, having a diameter of 50 mm and focal length of 75 mm, was applied to focus the emitted light from the plasma onto the optical fiber probe, which was placed on the focal point of your lens. This lens was PX-478 custom synthesis focused on the highest intensity positions in between electrodes (middle of radial positions, r = 15 mm). This configuration permitted the determination of species present within the plasma and enabled measurement on the.