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Dusting actions on wooden and ceramic boards within the classroom. Extruded calcium carbonate and molded gypsum-type chalks have been tested for PM generation and particle size distribution analysis. Calcium carbonate chalk generates low PM in comparison with gypsum chalk. The authors explored that dustless chalks made of gypsum create more PM and are equally as dangerous as other chalks. Children in the 61-years age group are identified to be one of the most susceptible group for establishing well being difficulties because of the ill effects of poor-quality chalks within the classroom. Mahima Habil et al. [178] investigated particle and ionic contamination affecting students in school classrooms. 3 hundred subjects participated inside a questionnaire study having a wide range of students from third class to ninth class. Elements inside and outdoors the GYKI 52466 manufacturer classrooms are equally accountable for poor IAQ. Chalk-dust, wall paint, furnishings paint, road dust, vehicular and industrial emissions, and soil dust are the major sources generating PM. Asthma, coughing, dizziness, dry skin, eye irritation, shortness of breath, and frequent headaches were reported as typical symptoms in classrooms by the subjects. Poor overall health is primarily responsible for college absenteeism. Studies show 14 million missed school days per year. The authors suggested simple measures to decrease PM ML-SA1 Biological Activity levels in classrooms. Cleanliness, less crowded classes, paved places, high greenery levels, along with the choice of a low-pollution area during school construction are potential measures to improve IAQ within the classroom. N.L. Sireesha et al. [179] investigated the built environment spatial qualities and their relation to IAQ in thirty secondary schools in Hyderabad. One-hundred and fifty subjects responded for the questionnaire survey. The investigation was carried out in 3 phases. The author relates IAQ to unique activities and recommends that adequately developed and maintained schools can potentially lower IAQ difficulties. Rohi Jan et al. [180] tested 4 classrooms and two-hundred and thirty students at an elementary school in Pune for PM and gaseous exposure assessment. PM levels had been five times higher than the NAAQS-recommended levels. All gases (O3 , SO2 , NO2 ) measured within the classroom had been inside NAAQS limits except carbon dioxide, that is resulting from inefficient ventilation and also a larger variety of students in the classroom. The subjective assessment showed that coughing, a running nose, cold, eye irritation, and fever will be the most typical symptoms amongst subjects in classrooms. Similarly, a cold, fever, as well as a cough were identified to become the key cause behind sickness absence. Akshay Arun Bhalekar et al. [184] investigated outdoor and indoor air quality through the winter season in two schools of Manipal town in Karnataka. The authors monitored PM10 , NO2 , SO2 , and CO2 . Temperature, relative humidity, and classroom physical parameters are also regarded in this study. The study reveals that there’s high CO2 inside the class as per ASHRAE requirements, and by closing doors and windows the PM particles entering the classroom can be controlled, but ventilation is affected. The authors recommended incorporating mechanical ventilation and air-purifying plants within the classrooms to enhance classroom IAQ. Venu Shree et al. [22] investigated IAQ in eight naturally ventilated main schools at Hamirpur throughout the summer time. The PM and CO2 levels inside the classroom had been drastically linked to outdoor situations. A crowded classroom and lo.

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