Ut Al2 O3 (R-Al2 O3 ) substrates at 600 C utilizing a RFMS deposition process with Ti target (99.five ) and large purity N2 gasoline. RBS of 1.4.eight MeV He ions shows the composition is stoichiometric (N/Ti = 1.0 0.05) and the movie thickness used on this review is 170 nm (deposition time of one hr). Here, the density of 5.25×1022 Ti cm-3 (5.4 gcm-3 ) is employed. Diffraction peaks have already been observed at 36.6 , 42.6 and 77 on SiO2 glass and C-Al2 O3 . Crystalline Tasisulam Autophagy construction has become recognized as being a cubic construction and these correspond to (111), (200) and (222) diffractions . Diffraction intensity of (111) is greater than that of (200) on SiO2 glass, and diffraction of (111) on C-Al2 O3 is very intensive. TiN on R-Al2 O3 has preferential development orientation of (220) of a cubic construction (diffraction angle at 61 ). Sputtered atoms are collected within the carbon foil (100 nm) plus the sputtered atoms are analyzed by RBS to acquire the sputtering yields  (carbon collector strategy). 3. Results and Discussion 3.1. SiO2 The XRD intensity at the diffraction angle of 22 (quite possibly the most intensive (002) diffraction of hexagonal-trydimite) normalized to that of as-grown SiO2 movies on Si(001) is proven in Figure one as a perform of the ion fluence for 90 MeV Ni10 , 100 MeV Xe14 and 200 MeV Xe14 ion impact. The XRD intensity of the irradiated sample normalized to that on the unirradiated sample is proportional to the ion fluence to a BSJ-01-175 custom synthesis specific fluence. Deviation in the linear dependence for your high fluence could possibly be due to the overlapping effect. As observed in latent track formation (e.g., [5,6]), electronic excitation effects lengthen to a region (roughly cylindrical) which has a radius of various nm along with a length on the projected array or film thickness, and consequently ions may hit the ion-irradiated aspect for any higher ion fluence (known as the overlapping effect). As described below, the XRD degradation yield per unit ion fluence (YXD ) is decreased at a higher fluence, and this might be understood as thermal annealing and/or a reduction within the disordered areas by means of ion-induced defects (recrystallization ). The injury cross-sections (AD obtained by RBS-channeling (RBS-C) system and TEM ) are compared with YXD in Figure 2, and it seems that the two agree very well for Se 10 keV. A discrepancy between AD and YXD is observed for Se ten keV, and also the explanation for this is not understood. On top of that, sputtering yields are frequently decreased, and this can be unlikely to become explained from the annealing impact. Consequently, the reasons for your sputtering suppression at a substantial fluence remain in question. The XRD degradation yields (YXD ) per unit ion fluence are obtained and offered in Table 1. The movie thickness continues to be obtained to get 1.five , working with 1.8 MeV He RBS. The attenuation length (LXA ) of Cu-k (eight.0 keV) is obtained to become 128  as well as the attenuation depth (LXA in(22 /2)) = 24.three . The movie thickness ( 1.five ) is a lot smaller compared to the attenuation depth and so no correction is important for your XRD intensity. The lattice expansion or boost within the lattice parameter of 0.5 with an estimated error of 0.two at 1 1012 cm- two is identified for being virtually independent of the electronic stopping energy.Quantum Beam Sci. 2021, 5,five ofFigure one. XRD intensity from (002) diffraction plane at 22 normalized to as-grown films of SiO2 as being a perform of ion fluence for 90 MeV Ni (, 100 MeV Xe (o, ) and 200 MeV Xe (x) ions. Information of 90 MeV Ni ( and a hundred MeV Xe are from . Linear fit is indicated by dashed lines. An.