S in thefundus of mice infected with each species (Fig. 7C). The expression of Tff2 was drastically enhanced at 52 weeks postinfection inside the fundus (fold alter for ASB1.4, six.49 3.32, and for SS1, 3.44 1.49) (see Fig. S3 within the supplemental material). Muc4,iai.asm.orgInfection and ImmunityMuc13 and SPEM Induced by H. heilmannii Sensu StrictoFIG six Evaluation of parietal cells inside the fundus with the stomach of Helicobacter-infected and control mice. (A to C) Expression levels of Atp4a (A), Atp4b (B), andKcnq1 (C) within the fundus in the stomach of H. heilmannii ASB1.4- and H. pylori SS1-infected mice are shown. Data are presented as fold adjustments in gene expression normalized to three reference genes and relative to the final results for the negative-control group, that are set as 1. Significant variations in expression levels amongst the infected groups plus the negative-control group at a particular time point (ANOVA) are indicated (, P 0.05; , P 0.001). (D to F) Immunohistochemical staining for the hydrogen potassium ATPase. (D) ATPase staining in the fundus of a sham-inoculated mouse. (E and F) Loss of parietal cells (Toll Like Receptor 13 Proteins MedChemExpress arrows) was observed in the fundus from the stomach of a mouse infected with H. heilmannii ASB1.four for 52 weeks (bar 30 m). (G) The mean numbers of parietal cells inside the fundus from the stomach from mice infected with Helicobacter for 52 weeks and manage mice are shown. The number of parietal cells in each and every stomach was determined by counting ATPase-positive cells in five randomly selected high-power fields at the amount of the gastric pits. Significant variations between Helicobacter-infected and control animals (ANOVA) are indicated (, P 0.001).August 2014 Volume 82 Numberiai.asm.orgLiu et al.FIG 7 Determination of mucous metaplasia in the fundus in the stomach of Helicobacter-infected mice. (A to C) mRNA expression levels of Muc4 (A), Dmbt1 (B), and pIgR (C) inside the fundus of your stomach of H. heilmannii ASB1.4- and H. pylori SS1-infected mice are shown. Data are presented as fold changes in gene expression normalized to 3 reference genes and relative for the final results for the negative-control group, which are set as 1. Data are shown as suggests standard deviations. Substantial variations in expression level in between the infected groups plus the negative-control group at a specific time point (ANOVA) are indicated (, P 0.05; , P 0.001). (D) PAS-Alcian blue staining of your forestomach/stomach transition zone of a sham-inoculated mouse (bar 30 m). (E and F) PAS-Alcian blue staining of your antrum (E) plus the fundus (F) on the stomach of a mouse infected with H. heilmannii ASB1 for 24 weeks (bars ten m). (G) PAS-Alcian blue staining of your forestomach/stomach transition zone of a mouse infected with H. heilmannii ASB1 for 52 weeks (bar 30 m). (E to G) Metaplastic columnar cells, mainly initiating in the transition zone junction amongst the forestomach and glandular epithelium along the lesser Ubiquitin-Specific Peptidase 21 Proteins MedChemExpress curvature (G) and, to a lesser extent, in the antrum (E) and fundus (F) of your stomach of Helicobacter-infected mice are indicated in blue. (H) The imply numbers ofiai.asm.orgInfection and ImmunityMuc13 and SPEM Induced by H. heilmannii Sensu StrictoDmbt1, pIgR, and Tff2 have already been described to be connected to SPEM with chronic inflammation (6, 26). PAS-Alcian blue staining at 34 and 52 weeks postinfection showed evidence for mucous metaplasia, with metaplastic columnar glands mainly initiating in the transition zone junction between the forestomach and glandular epitheliu.