Detection of necrosis and apoptosis in vivo. A. Tumor sections of

Detection of necrosis and apoptosis in vivo. A. Tumor sections of HCT116 CRC were analyzed for necrosis by hematoxylin osin (H E) staining, for apoptosis by TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin MedChemExpress JWH 133 nick-end labeling (TUNEL), and for morphological observations by transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis. (B1), Apoptosis in tumor cells. (B2), For clarity, a single tumor was observed for apoptosis. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047566.geither Ad?(ST13)?CEA?E1A(D24), Ad?(EGFP)?CEA?E1A(D24) or ONYX-015 at an MOI of 10 for different lengths of time (24, 48, 72, or 96 h), and the cell viability after infection was determined using the MTT assay. The results indicated that cellular inhibition was time-dependent. The antitumor effect following Ad (ST13)?CEA?E1A(D24) treatment was superior to that following Ad?(EGFP)?CEA?E1A(D24) and ONYX-015 treatment in each of the cell lines examined (Fig. 2B). After 96 h, the viability of Ad?(ST13)?CEA?E1A(D24)-infected cells was significantly decreased. Again the cytotoxicity of the Ad?(ST13)?CEA?E1A(D24) on three colorectal cancers showed greater antitumor effect than that of three CEA-negative cancer, while no cytotoxicity in two normal cells.These results indicated that Ad?(ST13)?CEA?E1A(D24) exerted a greater specific antitumor effect on three CEA-positive colorectal cancer cells than that of three CEA-negative cancer. To further confirm if the antitumor effect of Ad (ST13)?CEA?E1A(D24) was CEA-specific or colon-specific, we compared its effect on CEA-negative colon cancer cell line (Colo320) and CEA-positive non-colon cancer cell line (A549, MCF-7), as shown in Fig. 3C. Our findings suggested that Ad (ST13)?CEA?E1A(D24) was more specific on CEA-positive cancer cells. Morphological changes and 1317923 apoptosis induced by virus treatment and assayed flow eytometryMorphological changes in the tumor cells and normal cells treated with various viruses at an MOI of 10 after 72 hours were observed by microscopy. As shown in Fig. 3A, a cytopathic effect was DprE1-IN-2 supplier observedPotent Antitumor Effect of Ad(ST13)*CEA*E1A(D24)Figure 7. Possible mechanisms of the antitumor effect of Ad?(ST13)?CEA?E1A(D24) in vivo. After Ad?(ST13)?CEA?E1A(D24) infection, on the one hand, the phosphorylated P38, ATF2 and upregulation of CHOP expression were detected. On the other hand, executioner caspase-3 was activated. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047566.gin the CEA-positive colorectal cancer cells infected with either Ad?(ST13)?CEA?E1A(D24), Ad?(EGFP)?CEA?E1A(D24) or ONYX-015 compared with the CEA-negative HeLa cells. The results indicated that there were more significant morphological changes in Ad?(ST13)?CEA?E1A(D24)-infected cancer cells than in Ad?(EGFP)?CEA?E1A(D24)-infected or ONYX-015-infected cells, such as cell shrinkage and the appearance of small cellular fragments. Furthermore, no morphological changes were observed in the normal QSG7701 hepatic cell line. These results were further confirmed by the results of MTT assays. To determine whether apoptosis was involved in Ad?(ST13)?CEA?E1A(D24)-induced cell death, apoptosis was evaluated using flow cytometry assay. SW620 cells were infected with either ONYX-015 or Ad?(ST13)?CEA?E1A(D24) at an MOI of 5 for 48 h. The cells were then subjected to annexin V staining to identify early-stage apoptosis and PI staining to identify late-stage apoptosis by flow cytometric analysis. As shown in Fig. 3B, the percentages of Ad?(ST13)?CEA?E1A(D24)-infected tumor cells in early-stage and late-stage apoptosis were 7.13.Detection of necrosis and apoptosis in vivo. A. Tumor sections of HCT116 CRC were analyzed for necrosis by hematoxylin osin (H E) staining, for apoptosis by TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL), and for morphological observations by transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis. (B1), Apoptosis in tumor cells. (B2), For clarity, a single tumor was observed for apoptosis. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047566.geither Ad?(ST13)?CEA?E1A(D24), Ad?(EGFP)?CEA?E1A(D24) or ONYX-015 at an MOI of 10 for different lengths of time (24, 48, 72, or 96 h), and the cell viability after infection was determined using the MTT assay. The results indicated that cellular inhibition was time-dependent. The antitumor effect following Ad (ST13)?CEA?E1A(D24) treatment was superior to that following Ad?(EGFP)?CEA?E1A(D24) and ONYX-015 treatment in each of the cell lines examined (Fig. 2B). After 96 h, the viability of Ad?(ST13)?CEA?E1A(D24)-infected cells was significantly decreased. Again the cytotoxicity of the Ad?(ST13)?CEA?E1A(D24) on three colorectal cancers showed greater antitumor effect than that of three CEA-negative cancer, while no cytotoxicity in two normal cells.These results indicated that Ad?(ST13)?CEA?E1A(D24) exerted a greater specific antitumor effect on three CEA-positive colorectal cancer cells than that of three CEA-negative cancer. To further confirm if the antitumor effect of Ad (ST13)?CEA?E1A(D24) was CEA-specific or colon-specific, we compared its effect on CEA-negative colon cancer cell line (Colo320) and CEA-positive non-colon cancer cell line (A549, MCF-7), as shown in Fig. 3C. Our findings suggested that Ad (ST13)?CEA?E1A(D24) was more specific on CEA-positive cancer cells. Morphological changes and 1317923 apoptosis induced by virus treatment and assayed flow eytometryMorphological changes in the tumor cells and normal cells treated with various viruses at an MOI of 10 after 72 hours were observed by microscopy. As shown in Fig. 3A, a cytopathic effect was observedPotent Antitumor Effect of Ad(ST13)*CEA*E1A(D24)Figure 7. Possible mechanisms of the antitumor effect of Ad?(ST13)?CEA?E1A(D24) in vivo. After Ad?(ST13)?CEA?E1A(D24) infection, on the one hand, the phosphorylated P38, ATF2 and upregulation of CHOP expression were detected. On the other hand, executioner caspase-3 was activated. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047566.gin the CEA-positive colorectal cancer cells infected with either Ad?(ST13)?CEA?E1A(D24), Ad?(EGFP)?CEA?E1A(D24) or ONYX-015 compared with the CEA-negative HeLa cells. The results indicated that there were more significant morphological changes in Ad?(ST13)?CEA?E1A(D24)-infected cancer cells than in Ad?(EGFP)?CEA?E1A(D24)-infected or ONYX-015-infected cells, such as cell shrinkage and the appearance of small cellular fragments. Furthermore, no morphological changes were observed in the normal QSG7701 hepatic cell line. These results were further confirmed by the results of MTT assays. To determine whether apoptosis was involved in Ad?(ST13)?CEA?E1A(D24)-induced cell death, apoptosis was evaluated using flow cytometry assay. SW620 cells were infected with either ONYX-015 or Ad?(ST13)?CEA?E1A(D24) at an MOI of 5 for 48 h. The cells were then subjected to annexin V staining to identify early-stage apoptosis and PI staining to identify late-stage apoptosis by flow cytometric analysis. As shown in Fig. 3B, the percentages of Ad?(ST13)?CEA?E1A(D24)-infected tumor cells in early-stage and late-stage apoptosis were 7.13.