Omparison, we also analyzed the passage of red light through these

Omparison, we also analyzed the passage of red light through these materials, as red light is also used therapeutically for multiple medical conditions, including wound repair, dermatologic diseases, neurologic damage, blood disorders, musculoskeletal compli-Table 1. Transmission of Near Infrared and Red Light through Cadaver Skulls in Coronal Sections.Near Infrared Light, 830 nm (milliwatts/cm2) Skull I Air only, at a distance of 5 mm Left Parietal Skull Frontal Skull Right Parietal Skull 35.1 2.92 1.55 2.82 3.40 2.60 3.66 Skull II Red Light, 633 nm (milliwatts/cm2) Skull I 72.6 1.265 0.20 0.89 3.17 1.32 4.61 Skull IIdoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047460.tRed and Near Infrared Light TransmissionFigure 3. Percent Penetrance of Light through Sagittal Sections of Cadaver Skull with Intact Soft Tissue. Near infrared light measurably penetrates cadaver skull with intact soft tissue, as compared to red light. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047460.gcations, and inflammation [18]. Water, saline, cadaver fixative, and blood at various dilutions were also evaluated.informed consent was obtained from the participants, as the participants were the authors, and would have administered the consent to themselves.Methods EthicsInformed consent was not obtained for use of cadaveric samples, as these bodies had been donated to medical scientific study, including dissection, by the deceased. The cadaver skulls and tissues belonged to the State University of New York Downstate Medical Center anatomy lab. No MedChemExpress BI-78D3 tissue dissection was POR-8 biological activity performed, and only previously dissected and sectioned skulls were used. The research study protocol was reviewed and approved by the director of the State University of New York Downstate Medical Center anatomy lab, as the modifying element of the study consisted of non-invasive light based exposure and measurements, within the scope of the cadaveric donation to biomedical science. Ethics approval was not sought from our institutional review board for use of human subjects, because the authors themselves served as the subjects of the experiments, and the most invasive procedure was a single blood draw. Neither written nor verbalTransmission of Near Infrared and Red Light through Cadaver SkullsThe transmission of near infrared light and red light through cadaveric skull and intact cadaver sagittally sectioned head was measured using a Macam, now called Irradian, Radiometer (Model R203) with a 1.5 cm diameter sensor irradiance filter ring detector (RFF Cos-112). The light source used was an Omnilux New-U hand held device with a 4.7 cm 66.1 cm rectangular emitting aperture (kindly provided by Photomedex) and measurements were recorded of the transmission of near infrared light and red light through two coronally sectioned cadaver skulls. The penetrance was recorded through the frontal, left parietal, and right parietal skull. This process was repeated with a sagittally cut cadaver head with intact soft tissue. In this case, the penetrance of near infrared and red light was recorded through the frontal, temporal, and occipital skull. LED stability performance for redTable 2. Transmission of Near Infrared and Red Light through Sagittally Cut Intact Cadaver Head and Intact Shoulder and Temporomandibular Joint.Near Infrared Light, 830 nm (milliwatts/cm2) Air only, at a distance of 10 mm Temporal Skull with overlying soft tissue intact Frontal Skull with overlying soft tissue intact Occipital with overlying soft tissue intact doi:10.1371/journal.p.Omparison, we also analyzed the passage of red light through these materials, as red light is also used therapeutically for multiple medical conditions, including wound repair, dermatologic diseases, neurologic damage, blood disorders, musculoskeletal compli-Table 1. Transmission of Near Infrared and Red Light through Cadaver Skulls in Coronal Sections.Near Infrared Light, 830 nm (milliwatts/cm2) Skull I Air only, at a distance of 5 mm Left Parietal Skull Frontal Skull Right Parietal Skull 35.1 2.92 1.55 2.82 3.40 2.60 3.66 Skull II Red Light, 633 nm (milliwatts/cm2) Skull I 72.6 1.265 0.20 0.89 3.17 1.32 4.61 Skull IIdoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047460.tRed and Near Infrared Light TransmissionFigure 3. Percent Penetrance of Light through Sagittal Sections of Cadaver Skull with Intact Soft Tissue. Near infrared light measurably penetrates cadaver skull with intact soft tissue, as compared to red light. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047460.gcations, and inflammation [18]. Water, saline, cadaver fixative, and blood at various dilutions were also evaluated.informed consent was obtained from the participants, as the participants were the authors, and would have administered the consent to themselves.Methods EthicsInformed consent was not obtained for use of cadaveric samples, as these bodies had been donated to medical scientific study, including dissection, by the deceased. The cadaver skulls and tissues belonged to the State University of New York Downstate Medical Center anatomy lab. No tissue dissection was performed, and only previously dissected and sectioned skulls were used. The research study protocol was reviewed and approved by the director of the State University of New York Downstate Medical Center anatomy lab, as the modifying element of the study consisted of non-invasive light based exposure and measurements, within the scope of the cadaveric donation to biomedical science. Ethics approval was not sought from our institutional review board for use of human subjects, because the authors themselves served as the subjects of the experiments, and the most invasive procedure was a single blood draw. Neither written nor verbalTransmission of Near Infrared and Red Light through Cadaver SkullsThe transmission of near infrared light and red light through cadaveric skull and intact cadaver sagittally sectioned head was measured using a Macam, now called Irradian, Radiometer (Model R203) with a 1.5 cm diameter sensor irradiance filter ring detector (RFF Cos-112). The light source used was an Omnilux New-U hand held device with a 4.7 cm 66.1 cm rectangular emitting aperture (kindly provided by Photomedex) and measurements were recorded of the transmission of near infrared light and red light through two coronally sectioned cadaver skulls. The penetrance was recorded through the frontal, left parietal, and right parietal skull. This process was repeated with a sagittally cut cadaver head with intact soft tissue. In this case, the penetrance of near infrared and red light was recorded through the frontal, temporal, and occipital skull. LED stability performance for redTable 2. Transmission of Near Infrared and Red Light through Sagittally Cut Intact Cadaver Head and Intact Shoulder and Temporomandibular Joint.Near Infrared Light, 830 nm (milliwatts/cm2) Air only, at a distance of 10 mm Temporal Skull with overlying soft tissue intact Frontal Skull with overlying soft tissue intact Occipital with overlying soft tissue intact doi:10.1371/journal.p.