Ugated liposomes 3 days prior to BSA injection. The aim was to

Ugated liposomes 3 days prior to BSA injection. The aim was to control complement activation that has been recognized to be one of the initial events occurring in the acute phase of this disease and also responsible for amplification of the inflammatory process during progression of RA [7,26,27]. The animals were sacrificed 3 days after AKT inhibitor 2 antigen challenge, when themaximum joints swelling, the highest number of PMNs in the articular wash fluids and the overt synovial damage is observed in the rat AIA model [18]. Analysis of synovial tissue removed from rats receiving either mBSA or mBSA plus liposomes bearing control DNA revealed marked deposition C3 and C9 along the synovial lining layer and in subsynovial connective tissue, whereas no staining was observed in the tissue 23977191 harvested from saline treated rats used as a negative control (Figure 4). As expected, injection of liposomes bearing DNA encoding scFv-Fc MB12/22 into the rat knee treated with mBSA did not prevent binding of C3, which showed a distribution pattern and a staining intensity similar to that observed in rats treated with mBSA and empty liposomes. Conversely, a marked difference was seen in the deposition of C9, which wasAnti-C5 DNA Therapy for Arthritis PreventionFigure 5. Effect of DNA encoding MB12/22 on the development of inflammation in the model of antigen-induced arthritis in rats. Rats were treated with mBSA 3 days after intraarticular injection of DMRI-C + MB12/22 DNA or DMRI-C alone. Three days later, animals were euthanized and examined for joint swelling (A) and total cells (B) or PMN (C) count in synovial lavage fluids. Values are the mean 6 SD of 5 rats per group. (*): P values less than or equal to 0.02 were considered significant. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0058696.gsubstantially reduced in the MB12/22 producing animals (Figure 4).Prevention of inflammation by MB12/22 DNALiposomes containing anti-C5 DNA administered to rats undergoing AIA caused a marked reduction in joint swelling (Figure 5A) and a significant decrease in total cell (Figure 5B) and PMN number (Figure 5C) as compared to empty liposomes. Histological analysis of the joints obtained from rats receiving mBSA or the mixture of BSA and liposomes conatining control DNA revealed the presence of hyperplasia of lining synovial cells and marked leukocyte infiltration in the synovial tissue. Conversely, synovial hyperplasia, leukocyte infiltration, vasculitis and fibrosis were significantly reduced in rats after a single treatment with anti-C5 DNA (Figure 6). The difference in the histologic changes observed in the various groups of rats was also confirmed by the finding that damage score obtained by a quantitative evaluation of synovial hyperplasia, leukocyte infiltration, vasculitis and fibrosis was significantly reduced in animals treated with liposomes containing MB12/22 vector compared to control DNA (Figure 6).DiscussionDelivery of anti-inflammatory drugs to inflamed tissue represents an ideal therapeutic strategy to control inflammatory process in chronic diseases including rheumatoid arthritis. This approach allows a selective accumulation of the drug at tissue level thus avoiding side effect that may get UKI-1 derive from long-term systemic administration of therapeutic drugs. The risk of tuberculosis reactivation and opportunistic bacterial infection is a pitfall of treatment with anti-TNF and other biologic agents [2]. We have previously reported the characterization of the recombinant antibody MB12/22.Ugated liposomes 3 days prior to BSA injection. The aim was to control complement activation that has been recognized to be one of the initial events occurring in the acute phase of this disease and also responsible for amplification of the inflammatory process during progression of RA [7,26,27]. The animals were sacrificed 3 days after antigen challenge, when themaximum joints swelling, the highest number of PMNs in the articular wash fluids and the overt synovial damage is observed in the rat AIA model [18]. Analysis of synovial tissue removed from rats receiving either mBSA or mBSA plus liposomes bearing control DNA revealed marked deposition C3 and C9 along the synovial lining layer and in subsynovial connective tissue, whereas no staining was observed in the tissue 23977191 harvested from saline treated rats used as a negative control (Figure 4). As expected, injection of liposomes bearing DNA encoding scFv-Fc MB12/22 into the rat knee treated with mBSA did not prevent binding of C3, which showed a distribution pattern and a staining intensity similar to that observed in rats treated with mBSA and empty liposomes. Conversely, a marked difference was seen in the deposition of C9, which wasAnti-C5 DNA Therapy for Arthritis PreventionFigure 5. Effect of DNA encoding MB12/22 on the development of inflammation in the model of antigen-induced arthritis in rats. Rats were treated with mBSA 3 days after intraarticular injection of DMRI-C + MB12/22 DNA or DMRI-C alone. Three days later, animals were euthanized and examined for joint swelling (A) and total cells (B) or PMN (C) count in synovial lavage fluids. Values are the mean 6 SD of 5 rats per group. (*): P values less than or equal to 0.02 were considered significant. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0058696.gsubstantially reduced in the MB12/22 producing animals (Figure 4).Prevention of inflammation by MB12/22 DNALiposomes containing anti-C5 DNA administered to rats undergoing AIA caused a marked reduction in joint swelling (Figure 5A) and a significant decrease in total cell (Figure 5B) and PMN number (Figure 5C) as compared to empty liposomes. Histological analysis of the joints obtained from rats receiving mBSA or the mixture of BSA and liposomes conatining control DNA revealed the presence of hyperplasia of lining synovial cells and marked leukocyte infiltration in the synovial tissue. Conversely, synovial hyperplasia, leukocyte infiltration, vasculitis and fibrosis were significantly reduced in rats after a single treatment with anti-C5 DNA (Figure 6). The difference in the histologic changes observed in the various groups of rats was also confirmed by the finding that damage score obtained by a quantitative evaluation of synovial hyperplasia, leukocyte infiltration, vasculitis and fibrosis was significantly reduced in animals treated with liposomes containing MB12/22 vector compared to control DNA (Figure 6).DiscussionDelivery of anti-inflammatory drugs to inflamed tissue represents an ideal therapeutic strategy to control inflammatory process in chronic diseases including rheumatoid arthritis. This approach allows a selective accumulation of the drug at tissue level thus avoiding side effect that may derive from long-term systemic administration of therapeutic drugs. The risk of tuberculosis reactivation and opportunistic bacterial infection is a pitfall of treatment with anti-TNF and other biologic agents [2]. We have previously reported the characterization of the recombinant antibody MB12/22.